From the Latin word "ars", meaning technical and / or ability. It can be understood as human activity linked to expressions of aesthetic order or communicative, held by a wide variety of languages, such as architecture, sculpture, painting, writing, music, dance and cinema, in its various combinations. The creative process starts from the perception in order to express emotions and ideas, aiming at a unique and different meaning for each work. It is human activity linked to expressions of aesthetic order, made by artists from perception, emotions and ideas, in order to stimulate this interest of consciousness in one or more viewers, and each work of art has a unique and different meaning.
The art is on the aesthetics, because it is considered a college or act by which, working a story, picture or sound, man creates beauty to strive to give expression to the material world or immaterial that inspires you.
Visual Arts is the name given to the group constituted by the architecture, sculpture, graphic arts and artistic crafts. Visual arts or fine arts are expressive formations performed using production techniques that manipulate materials to build forms and images that reveal an aesthetic and poetic conception in a given historical moment. The emergence of art is directly related to the evolution of the human species. The artist deals with paper, paint, plaster, clay, wood and metal, computer programs and other technological tools to produce parts. Like the others, the arts are characterized overall and individually by the interplay of form and content. In the evolution of artistic styles are found special features of historical development. Each time, such as the Romanesque, Gothic, Baroque or Renaissance, has regional and individual characteristic styles with own evolution and connected to isolated artistic individualities, whose research is the forum of art history.
It was developed between the Upper Palaeolithic and the Neolithic, where they appear the first manifestations that can be considered as art. In the Paleolithic man, devoted to hunting and living in caves, practiced called rock art. In the Neolithic it became sedentary and developed agriculture, with increasingly complex societies, where religion has gained importance. Examples are the megalithic monuments and the beginnings of handicraft production in the form of ceramic vessels and figurines.
In Egypt and Mesopotamia lived the first highly structured civilizations, and its artists / artisans produced complex works that already have a professional specialization. Egyptian art was characterized by religious and political character, highlighting the architecture, painting and sculpture. The sculpture and painting show the human figure in a strongly hieratic and schematic style, due to the rigidity of their symbolic and religious canons. The Mesopotamian art developed in the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and witness of different cultures, such as the Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians and Persians. In architecture include the ziggurats, large pyramidal temples in steps, while the sculpture dominates religious scenes, hunting and war, with the presence of human figures and real or mythological animals.
The Art of Ancient Greece marked the evolution of Western art. After a start in which stressed the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations, the Greek art developed in three periods: Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic. In architecture they stood the temples, with its three orders: Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. Sculpture dominated the representation of the human body, reaching a synthesis of naturalism and idealism in the classical period, especially for the production of Myron, Phidias, Praxiteles and Policleto. With clear precedents in Etruscan and Greek art, Roman art reached almost every corner of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, laying the foundations of Western art. Great engineers and builders, have excelled in civil architecture developed the bow and acúpula with the construction of roads, bridges, aqueducts and urban works, as well as temples, palaces, theaters, amphitheatres, circuses, baths, triumphal arches, etc. The sculpture, inspired by the Greek, is also focused on the human figure, but more realistically. Painting and mosaic are known by the remains found in Pompeii and some other places.
The medieval art, is a direct derivation of the Roman art, beginning with the early Christian art after the official recognition of Christianity as the Roman Empire religion. They worked the classic ways to interpret the new religious doctrine. However, just the classic style was sprayed in a plurality of regional schools, with the advent of more schematic and simplified forms. In architecture stood out as the basilica type, while the sculpture the sarcophagi assumed prominent role, as well as mosaics and paintings of the catacombs. The next step was the call Byzantine art, incorporating Eastern and Greek influences, and with the icon and mosaics its main genres. The Romanesque art followed his parallel, receiving the influence of barbarian peoples like the Germans, Celts and Goths. It was the first international art style after the fall of the Roman Empire. Eminently religious, most art rom Anica aims exaltation and spread of Christianity. The architecture emphasizes the use of vaults and arches, starting the construction of great cathedrals, which will continue during the Gothic. The sculpture is mainly developed in the architectural context, with schematic forms. The Gothic art developed between the twelfth and sixteenth, and a time of economic and cultural development. The architecture was profoundly altered by the introduction of the pointed arch and botante bow, born lighter and more dynamic forms, which enabled the construction of taller buildings with larger openings, typified in the Gothic cathedral. The sculpture continues framed mainly in architectural work, but began to develop themselves autonomously, with more realistic and elegant shapes inspired by nature and partly a recovery classical influences. Appear large altarpieces sculptural and painting develops innovative techniques like oil and tempera, creating works of great detail.
The Modern Age begins in the Renaissance, great cultural splendor period in Europe. Religion has given way to a scientific conception of man and the universe, the humanism of the system. The new geographical discoveries led to European civilization to expand to every continent, and by inventing daimprensa culture is universalized. His art was inspired primarily in the classical Greco-Roman art and scientific observation of nature. Among its exponents are Filippo Brunelleschi, Leon Battista Alberti, Bramante, Donatello, Leonardo da Vinci, Dante, Petrarch, Raphael, Dürer, Palestrina and Lassus. Continuing produced Mannerism, with the emergence of greater individualism and a sense of drama and extravagance, proliferating in numerous regional schools. It was also important at this stage the dispute between Protestant and Catholic counter-reformers, impacting on sacred art. Shakespeare, Cervantes, Camões, Andrea Palladio, Parmigianino, Monteverdi, El Greco and Michelangelo are some of its most notorious representatives. In the Baroque period have strengthened national states, giving rise to absolutism. As a reflection of this art becomes sumptuous and grandiloquent, favoring sharp contrasts, the sense of drama and movement. They encourage themselves large schools in several countries, such as Italy, France, Spain and Germany. Are key names períodoGóngora, Vieira, Molière, Donne, Bernini, Bach, Handel, Lully, Pozzo, Borromini, Caravaggio, Rubens, Poussin, Lorrain, Rembrandt, Ribera, Zurbarán, Velázquez, among many others.
His sequence was the Rococo, emerged from the mid-eighteenth century, with more light and elegant forms, favoring decorativism, the aristocratic sophistication and individual sensitivity. At the same time it established an illuminist current, preaching the primacy of reason and a return to nature. Were important, for example, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Jean-Antoine Houdon, Antoine Watteau, Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Joshua Reynolds and Thomas Gainsborough. At the end of the century emerge two opposing currents: Romanticism and Neoclassicism, which dominate until the mid-nineteenth century, sometimes eclectic synthesis, as in Goethe's work. Romanticism emphasized the individual artist experience with rapt, visionary and dramatic works, while Neoclassicism recovering balanced ideal of classicism and imposed a moralizing social and political function for art. In the first current can be highlighted Victor Hugo, Byron, Eugène Delacroix, Francisco Goya, Frédéric Chopin, Ludwig van Beethoven, William Turner, Richard Wagner, William Blake, Albert Bierstadt and Caspar David Friedrich, and in the second, Jacques-Louis David Mozart, Haydn and Antonio Canova.
Between mid-nineteenth century and early twentieth century laid the foundations of contemporary society, marked in the political field by the end of absolutism and the establishment of democratic governments. In the economic field, this phase marked the Industrial Revolution and the consolidation of capitalism, which had responses on the left of doctrines such as Marxism and the class struggle. In art which typifies the period is the multiplication of highly differentiated chains. By the end of the nineteenth century emerged, for example, realism, impressionism, symbolism and post-impressionism.
The twentieth century was characterized by a strong emphasis on questioning the ancient art of bases, proposing to create a new paradigm of culture and society and bring down everything that was tradition. Until the middle of the vanguards century were bundled in the modernist label, and since then they succeed ever more rapidly, reaching today to a state of total spraying of styles and aesthetics, who live, dialogue, they influence and They face each other. Also emerged a tendency to request the participation of the public in the creation process, and incorporate the artistic field a variety of themes, styles, practices and technologies previously unknown or deleted. Among the many trends of the twentieth century include: art nouveau, fauvism, pointillism, abstraction, expressionism, socialist realism, cubism, futurism, Dadaism, surrealism, functionalism, constructivism, informalism, pop art, neo-realism, arts action (performance, happening , fluxus, installation), op art, video art, minimalism, conceptual art, photorealism, land art, arte povera, body art, postmodern art, transvanguard, neoexpressionismo.
This engraving technique involves creating brands (or drawings) on an array (limestone) with a greasy pencil. The basis of this technique is the principle of repulsion between water and oil. Unlike other techniques of etching, the lithography is planográfica, namely, the drawing is done via the accumulation of fat on the surface of the matrix and not through grooves and ridges in the array, as in engraving and the engraving ( see technique). His first name was poliautografia meaning the production of multiple copies of original manuscripts and drawings.
is Xylography Xilogravura or engraving technique in which wood is used as a template and allows the playback of the recorded image on paper or other suitable support. It is a very similar process with a stamp.
It is a technique that carves the wood, with the help of a cutter, the shape or form (matrix) that you want to print. After this procedure, you use a rubber roller dipped in ink, just touching the high parts of the notch. The final process is embossed printing on special paper or cloth which is impregnated with ink to reveal the figure. Among the variations of the support can be recorded on linoleum (linocut) or any other flat surface. In addition to variations in the technique, such as "top engraving".
Screen printing or silk-screen printing is a printing process in which ink is leaked - by pressing a squeegee or a handle - prepared through a screen. The screen (silkscreen Matrix), usually polyester or nylon, is stretched on a frame (frame) of wood, aluminum or aço.1 The "record" screen is through photosensitivity process, where the matrix prepared with a photosensitive emulsion it is placed on a photolithography, which is set matrix + photolithography placed in turn on a table lamp. The dark spots of photolithography correspond to sites that will be cast on the screen, allowing the passage of ink through the mesh structure, and the light spots (where the light will pass through photolithography reaching the emulsion) are sealed by hardening the photosensitive emulsion was exposed to light.
It is used for printing on various types of materials (paper, plastic, rubber, wood, glass, fabric, etc.), surfaces (cylindrical, spherical, irregular, light, dark, opaque, bright, etc.), thicknesses or sizes, with various types of paints or colors. It can be done mechanically (by people) or automatic (machine).
The screen printing is characterized as one of the engraving process, determined planographic picture.